Navigating custody arrangements can be a complex and emotional process for any family. However, this process often includes unique challenges for military families, given their often-mobile lifestyle and service demands. Military parents must grapple with many concerns, such as deployments, frequent relocations, and unpredictable schedules, which can complicate custody and visitation arrangements.

Custody in Military Families: Key Considerations

The primary consideration in all custody decisions is the child’s best interest. However, the unique aspects of military life can significantly influence this decision. Frequent relocations across state lines or overseas can disrupt a child’s social and academic stability. Extended deployments may result in prolonged separations, potentially impacting the parent-child relationship.

Military parents can also face legal complexities as family law is primarily state-based, and different states have different regulations regarding custody arrangements. Therefore, the frequent moves familiar to military families may introduce inconsistent custody and visitation rules, complicating matters further.

Protections for Military ParentsMilitary Custody

Understanding the unique challenges military parents face, legislation and protections have been implemented. The Service Members Civil Relief Act (SCRA) provides that a military parent’s deployment cannot be the sole reason for changing a custody order. It allows temporarily modifying the custody order during deployment, which should revert to the original arrangement once the service member returns.

The Uniform Deployed Parents Custody and Visitation Act (UDPCVA) also offers protection. It suggests states allow for electronic visitation (e.g., via video call) during deployment and prohibit permanent custody changes solely due to deployment. While it’s a uniform law proposed for adoption by all states, not all states have adopted it.  Florida has adopted UDPCVA. If adopted, it would provide clear guidelines for military parents in Florida, ensuring that their service to their country does not negatively impact their parental rights.

Planning: The Family Care Plan

Military service members are encouraged to have a Family Care Plan, a collection of documents outlining arrangements for their children during deployment or training. It designates a short-term and long-term caregiver, ensuring a plan is in place should the military parent be unavailable.

The following is a DRAMATIZATION AND NOT AN ACTUAL EVENT: Take the fictional Smith family, for instance. Lieutenant Smith, a single father stationed in Virginia, was preparing for an overseas deployment. His ex-wife, Mrs. Smith, lived in Texas with limited financial resources, making frequent trips for their daughter, Lily, to see her father difficult. Understanding his deployment could impact his custodial rights, Lieutenant Smith consulted with a military legal assistance attorney. They developed a comprehensive Family Care Plan with his attorney, designating his sister in North Carolina as Lily’s short-term caregiver, given her proximity and willingness to facilitate regular contact between Lily and her mother.

Upon his deployment, the temporary modification was initiated. Lieutenant Smith also arranged regular video calls to maintain his relationship with Lily. Mrs. Smith agreed to the quick amendment and reassured that it would not permanently alter their custody agreement. The coordinated effort by the Smith family showcases how planning and understanding legal protections can facilitate smoother transitions during deployments.

The Role of a Custody Attorney

The role of a custody attorney in military custody cases is particularly crucial and nuanced, given the unique circumstances and potential complexities involved. These attorneys not only navigate the intricacies of standard custody arrangements but also understand and work within the provisions of laws like the Uniform Deployed Parents Custody and Visitation Act (UDPCVA), which specifically addresses issues relevant to military parents. They advise and represent military parents to ensure their service does not unfairly impede their parental rights.

These attorneys also help craft family care plans and custody agreements that accommodate the unique demands of military service, including potential deployments or reassignments. Their role extends to advocating for the child’s best interests, ensuring continuity of care, and maintaining the parent-child relationship, even in challenging and changing circumstances.

Factors That Influence Military Custody Military Mom And Kid

  • The Influence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder on Custody Arrangements: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can significantly impact a military parent’s custody and visitation rights, necessitating careful consideration from family courts to balance the parent’s mental health needs with the child’s best interests.
  • Determining Home State in Military Family Custody Cases: Given the frequent relocations characteristic of military life, determining the “home state” in custody disputes presents unique complexities. The Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act (UCCJEA) provides guidance but can lead to varying outcomes based on each family’s circumstances.
  • Cross-Border Co-Parenting Challenges for Military Families: Military families stationed overseas often face the challenge of navigating international custody disputes. These situations involve intricate interplays between nations’ family laws and international treaties, such as the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction.
  • Custody evaluators play an essential role in military custody cases: These professionals, often psychologists or social workers, comprehensively evaluate the family’s circumstances, considering factors specific to military families, such as frequent relocations, extended deployments, and the potential for post-traumatic stress disorder. Through interviews, observation, and review of relevant documentation, the custody evaluator ascertains the child’s needs and each parent’s ability to meet those needs, considering the unique circumstances presented by military service. Based on their assessment of the child’s best interests, their recommendations can significantly assist the court in making informed and fair custody decisions, facilitating the creation of a custody arrangement that balances the demands of military service with the child’s need for stability and ongoing relationships with both parents.

Custody During Deployment

During times of deployment, especially in war zones, custody and visitation arrangements for military parents can become significantly complex. The deployed parent’s ability to maintain regular in-person contact with the child is inherently limited, thereby affecting the dynamics of visitation. However, thanks to the provisions of the Uniform Deployed Parents Custody and Visitation Act (UDPCVA), deployed military parents have the right to electronic visitation. This could include regular video calls, emails, or social media interactions, enabling the parent and child to maintain a relationship despite the distance.

Deployment in a war zone also invokes the Service Members Civil Relief Act (SCRA), which discourages permanent changes to custody orders based solely on deployment. Instead, temporary modifications are often made, ensuring the child’s immediate needs are met while preserving the deployed parent’s custodial rights for their return. This can sometimes involve delegating visitation rights to a family member, like a grandparent, to foster continuity in the child’s life.


Custody issues can be challenging for military families, given their unique circumstances. However, understanding the legal protections available and thoughtful planning via a Family Care Plan can alleviate some potential disruptions caused by military service. For military families, maintaining stability for their children amidst an often-fluid lifestyle is paramount. Navigating these complexities with compassion and a commitment to the child’s best interest can ensure that, despite the challenges, the child’s well-being remains paramount.

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